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Promotion attempts to draw attention to a product or business in order to gain new customers or to retain existing ones.  We often highlight two forms of promotion:

        Below the line promotion refers to the promotional methods that take place which firms have some degree of control over for example sales promotions and direct selling.

        Above the line promotion occurs when firms advertise through an independent media such as television or radio.


Marketing Models

Marketing is sometimes considered using two models, AIDA and DAGMAR.

  Advertising should seek to:

A attract attention

I create interest

D develop a desire

A lead to action (a purchase)




Goals for





What Affects the Level of Marketing

The extent to which marketing is important will depend on a number of factors:

        The competitiveness of the market, where no alternatives are available there will be less need to persuade the consumer to purchase the good.

        The availability of a good, if a product is in short supply then there will be little need to promote it.

        How easily the product can be differentiated in the market, if the differences are obvious to the customer then there may be less need for promotion.

        The stage of the product life cycle, as a new or altered product will need promotional support.


Small budget marketing

A small firm is likely to use one of the following methods of promotion:


Advantages for a small firm

Leaflet drop.

relatively cheap.

able to target a geographical segment.

Local newspapers.

relatively cheap.

able to target a geographical segment.

Trade/hobby magazines.

low cost method of targeting segment.

well defined readership.

Business directories, e.g., Yellow Pages.

well used reference guide for local firms.

users often want to make a purchase.

Public relations (PR), e.g., free editorial coverage.

Free and often has more credibility than advertising.


For the majority of firms the main aim of their marketing will be to create happy customers who will make repeat purchases and recommend your company to friends and family.  This will ensure the continued success of the company.

Further Reading

Promotion PowerPoint Presentation  
Controls on advertising PowerPoint Presentation
All is not what it seems PowerPoint Presentation
Spending on advertising
Benefits of promotion for Vodafone



E-mail Steve Margetts