gains employees co-operation (resistance to necessary change
is likely to be lessened, e.g., redundancy).
less need for supervision.
better industrial relations (trade unions).
deciding upon which method of participation is best (see
costs (workers technical knowledge, training, expertise in
slower decision making.
there may be a conflict of interests.
workers may not want responsibility, managers are paid to
make the best use of the company’s assets and the maximisation of profit in
worker directors - employee representative on the board of
directors. Occurs frequently in
Germany , but it is rare in the UK.
works council - employee representatives form a committee.
They have a right to influence policies involving employees and
appoint a director to the main board. Some
UK companies are setting up work councils, e.g., BT and ICI.
Quality circles - voluntary group of employees (usually
5-12), meet during working hours to discuss problems relating to their work
and they present their ideas to management.
Kaizen - Continuous improvement or “kaizen” is a
philosophy of ongoing improvement
based around small changes involving everyone-managers and
consultative committees - employee representatives are
consulted on issues such as health and safety or new developments.
They deal with issues affecting the whole firm.
Team briefings - the manager meets with employees regularly
to discuss issues relevant to their work.
Objective is to make sure employees know and understand what they are
doing and why.